Newly observed optical state could enable quantum computing with photons.
|Scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can be made to interact — an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. Image, Christine Daniloff, MIT|
Try a quick experiment: Take two flashlights into a dark room and shine them so that their light beams cross. Notice anything peculiar? The rather anticlimactic answer is, probably not. That’s because the individual photons that make up light do not interact. Instead, they simply pass each other by, like indifferent spirits in the night.
But what if light particles could be made to interact, attracting and repelling each other like atoms in ordinary matter? One tantalizing, albeit sci-fi possibility: light sabers — beams of light that can pull and push on each other, making for dazzling, epic confrontations. Or, in a more likely scenario, two beams of light could meet and merge into one single, luminous stream.
It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact — an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers.
In a paper published Feb. 15, 2018, in the journal Science, the team, led by Vladan Vuletic, the Lester Wolfe Professor of Physics at MIT, and Professor Mikhail Lukin from Harvard University, reports that it has observed groups of three photons interacting and, in effect, sticking together to form a completely new kind of photonic matter.
In controlled experiments, the researchers found that when they shone a very weak laser beam through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms, rather than exiting the cloud as single, randomly spaced photons, the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting some kind of interaction — in this case, attraction — taking place among them.
While photons normally have no mass and travel at 300,000 kilometers per second (the speed of light), the researchers found that the bound photons actually acquired a fraction of an electron’s mass. These newly weighed-down light particles were also relatively sluggish, traveling about 100,000 times slower than normal noninteracting photons.
Vuletic says the results demonstrate that photons can indeed attract, or entangle each other. If they can be made to interact in other ways, photons may be harnessed to perform extremely fast, incredibly complex quantum computations.
“The interaction of individual photons has been a very long dream for decades,” Vuletic says.
Vuletic’s co-authors include Qi-Yung Liang, Sergio Cantu, and Travis Nicholson from MIT, Lukin and Aditya Venkatramani of Harvard, Michael Gullans and Alexey Gorshkov of the University of Maryland, Jeff Thompson from Princeton University, and Cheng Ching of the University of Chicago.
Biggering and biggering
Vuletic and Lukin lead the MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, and together they have been looking for ways, both theoretical and experimental, to encourage interactions between photons. In 2013, the effort paid off, as the team observed pairs of photons interacting and binding together for the first time, creating an entirely new state of matter.
In their new work, the researchers wondered whether interactions could take place between not only two photons, but more.
“For example, you can combine oxygen molecules to form O2 and O3 (ozone), but not O4, and for some molecules you can’t form even a three-particle molecule,” Vuletic says. “So it was an open question: Can you add more photons to a molecule to make bigger and bigger things?”
To find out, the team used the same experimental approach they used to observe two-photon interactions. The process begins with cooling a cloud of rubidium atoms to ultracold temperatures, just a millionth of a degree above absolute zero. Cooling the atoms slows them to a near standstill. Through this cloud of immobilized atoms, the researchers then shine a very weak laser beam — so weak, in fact, that only a handful of photons travel through the cloud at any one time.
The researchers then measure the photons as they come out the other side of the atom cloud. In the new experiment, they found that the photons streamed out as pairs and triplets, rather than exiting the cloud at random intervals, as single photons having nothing to do with each other.
In addition to tracking the number and rate of photons, the team measured the phase of photons, before and after traveling through the atom cloud. A photon’s phase indicates its frequency of oscillation.
“The phase tells you how strongly they’re interacting, and the larger the phase, the stronger they are bound together,” Venkatramani explains. The team observed that as three-photon particles exited the atom cloud simultaneously, their phase was shifted compared to what it was when the photons didn’t interact at all, and was three times larger than the phase shift of two-photon molecules. “This means these photons are not just each of them independently interacting, but they’re all together interacting strongly.”
The researchers then developed a hypothesis to explain what might have caused the photons to interact in the first place. Their model, based on physical principles, puts forth the following scenario: As a single photon moves through the cloud of rubidium atoms, it briefly lands on a nearby atom before skipping to another atom, like a bee flitting between flowers, until it reaches the other end.
If another photon is simultaneously traveling through the cloud, it can also spend some time on a rubidium atom, forming a polariton — a hybrid that is part photon, part atom. Then two polaritons can interact with each other via their atomic component. At the edge of the cloud, the atoms remain where they are, while the photons exit, still bound together. The researchers found that this same phenomenon can occur with three photons, forming an even stronger bond than the interactions between two photons.
“What was interesting was that these triplets formed at all,” Vuletic says. “It was also not known whether they would be equally, less, or more strongly bound compared with photon pairs.”
The entire interaction within the atom cloud occurs over a millionth of a second. And it is this interaction that triggers photons to remain bound together, even after they’ve left the cloud.
“What’s neat about this is, when photons go through the medium, anything that happens in the medium, they ‘remember’ when they get out,” Cantu says.
This means that photons that have interacted with each other, in this case through an attraction between them, can be thought of as strongly correlated, or entangled — a key property for any quantum computing bit.
“Photons can travel very fast over long distances, and people have been using light to transmit information, such as in optical fibers,” Vuletic says. “If photons can influence one another, then if you can entangle these photons, and we’ve done that, you can use them to distribute quantum information in an interesting and useful way.”
Going forward, the team will look for ways to coerce other interactions such as repulsion, where photons may scatter off each other like billiard balls.
“It’s completely novel in the sense that we don’t even know sometimes qualitatively what to expect,” Vuletic says. “With repulsion of photons, can they be such that they form a regular pattern, like a crystal of light? Or will something else happen? It’s very uncharted territory.”
– Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
February 15, 2018
With an atomic structure resembling a Japanese basketweaving pattern, “kagome metal” exhibits exotic, quantum behavior.
|An illustration depicting a kagome metal — an electrically conducting crystal, made from layers of iron and tin atoms, with each atomic layer arranged in the repeating pattern of a kagome lattice. Images by Felice Frankel; Illustration overlays by Chelsea Turner|
A motif of Japanese basketweaving known as the kagome pattern has preoccupied physicists for decades. Kagome baskets are typically made from strips of bamboo woven into a highly symmetrical pattern of interlaced, corner-sharing triangles.
If a metal or other conductive material could be made to resemble such a kagome pattern at the atomic scale, with individual atoms arranged in similar triangular patterns, it should in theory exhibit exotic electronic properties.
In a paper published March 19, 2018, in Nature, physicists from MIT, Harvard University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report that they have for the first time produced a kagome metal — an electrically conducting crystal, made from layers of iron and tin atoms, with each atomic layer arranged in the repeating pattern of a kagome lattice.
When they flowed a current across the kagome layers within the crystal, the researchers observed that the triangular arrangement of atoms induced strange, quantum-like behaviors in the passing current. Instead of flowing straight through the lattice, electrons instead veered, or bent back within the lattice.
This behavior is a three-dimensional cousin of the so-called Quantum Hall effect, in which electrons flowing through a two-dimensional material will exhibit a “chiral, topological state,” in which they bend into tight, circular paths and flow along edges without losing energy.
“By constructing the kagome network of iron, which is inherently magnetic, this exotic behavior persists to room temperature and higher,” says Joseph Checkelsky, assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The charges in the crystal feel not only the magnetic fields from these atoms, but also a purely quantum-mechanical magnetic force from the lattice. This could lead to perfect conduction, akin to superconductivity, in future generations of materials.”
To explore these findings, the team measured the energy spectrum within the crystal, using a modern version of an effect first discovered by Heinrich Hertz and explained by Einstein, known as the photoelectric effect.
“Fundamentally, the electrons are first ejected from the material’s surface and are then detected as a function of takeoff angle and kinetic energy,” says Riccardo Comin, an assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The resulting images are a very direct snapshot of the electronic levels occupied by electrons, and in this case they revealed the creation of nearly massless ‘Dirac’ particles, an electrically charged version of photons, the quanta of light.”
The spectra revealed that electrons flow through the crystal in a way that suggests the originally massless electrons gained a relativistic mass, similar to particles known as massive Dirac fermions. Theoretically, this is explained by the presence of the lattice’s constituent iron and tin atoms. The former are magnetic and give rise to a “handedness,” or chirality. The latter possess a heavier nuclear charge, producing a large local electric field. As an external current flows by, it senses the tin’s field not as an electric field but as a magnetic one, and bends away.
The research team was led by Checkelsky and Comin, as well as graduate students Linda Ye and Min Gu Kang in collaboration with Liang Fu, the Biedenharn Associate Professor of Physics, and postdoc Junwei Liu. The team also includes Christina Wicker ’17, research scientist Takehito Suzuki of MIT, Felix von Cube and David Bell of Harvard, and Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, and Eli Rotenberg of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
“No alchemy required”
Physicists have theorized for decades that electronic materials could support exotic Quantum Hall behavior with their inherent magnetic character and lattice geometry. It wasn’t until several years ago that researchers made progress in realizing such materials.
“The community realized, why not make the system out of something magnetic, and then the system’s inherent magnetism could perhaps drive this behavior,” says Checkelsky, who at the time was working as a researcher at the University of Tokyo.
This eliminated the need for laboratory produced fields, typically 1 million times as strong as the Earth’s magnetic field, needed to observe this behavior.
“Several research groups were able to induce a Quantum Hall effect this way, but still at ultracold temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero — the result of shoehorning magnetism into a material where it did not naturally occur,” Checkelsky says.
|Assistant professor of physics at MIT Joe Checkelsky (left to right), graduate students Linda Ye and Min Gu Kang, and assistant professor of physics at MIT Riccardo Comin. Image, Takehito|
At MIT, Checkelsky has instead looked for ways to drive this behavior with “instrinsic magnetism.” A key insight, motivated by the doctoral work of Evelyn Tang PhD ’15 and Professor Xiao-Gang Wen, was to seek this behavior in the kagome lattice. To do so, first author Ye ground together iron and tin, then heated the resulting powder in a furnace, producing crystals at about 750 degrees Celsius — the temperature at which iron and tin atoms prefer to arrange in a kagome-like pattern. She then submerged the crystals in an ice bath to enable the lattice patterns to remain stable at room temperature.
“The kagome pattern has big empty spaces that might be easy to weave by hand, but are often unstable in crystalline solids which prefer the best packing of atoms,” Ye says. “The trick here was to fill these voids with a second type of atom in a structure that was at least stable at high temperatures. Realizing these quantum materials doesn’t need alchemy, but instead materials science and patience.”
Bending and skipping toward zero-energy loss
Once the researchers grew several samples of crystals, each about a millimeter wide, they handed the samples off to collaborators at Harvard, who imaged the individual atomic layers within each crystal using transmission electron microscopy. The resulting images revealed that the arrangement of iron and tin atoms within each layer resembled the triangular patterns of the kagome lattice. Specifically, iron atoms were positioned at the corners of each triangle, while a single tin atom sat within the larger hexagonal space created between the interlacing triangles.
Ye then ran an electric current through the crystalline layers and monitored their flow via electrical voltages they produced. She found that the charges deflected in a manner that seemed two-dimensional, despite the three-dimensional nature of the crystals. The definitive proof came from the photoelectron experiments conducted by co-first author Kang who, in concert with the LBNL team, was able to show that the electronic spectra corresponded to effectively two-dimensional electrons.
“As we looked closely at the electronic bands, we noticed something unusual,” Kang adds. “The electrons in this magnetic material behaved as massive Dirac particles, something that had been predicted long ago but never been seen before in these systems.”
“The unique ability of this material to intertwine magnetism and topology suggests that they may well engender other emergent phenomena,” Comin says. “Our next goal is to detect and manipulate the edge states which are the very consequence of the topological nature of these newly discovered quantum electronic phases.”
Looking further, the team is now investigating ways to stabilize other more highly two-dimensional kagome lattice structures. Such materials, if they can be synthesized, could be used to explore not only devices with zero energy loss, such as dissipationless power lines, but also applications toward quantum computing.
“For new directions in quantum information science there is a growing interest in novel quantum circuits with pathways that are dissipationless and chiral,” Checkelsky says. “These kagome metals offer a new materials design pathway to realizing such new platforms for quantum circuitry.”
This research was supported in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the National Science Foundation.
– Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
March 19, 2018
Modular blocks could enable labs around the world to cheaply and easily build their own diagnostics.
|Jose Gomez-Marquez, co-director of MIT’s Little Devices Lab, holds a sheet of paper diagnostic blocks, which can be easily printed and then combined in various ways to create customized diagnostic devices. Image, Melanie Gonick, MIT.|
Researchers at MIT’s Little Devices Lab have developed a set of modular blocks that can be put together in different ways to produce diagnostic devices. These “plug-and-play” devices, which require little expertise to assemble, can test blood glucose levels in diabetic patients or detect viral infection, among other functions.
“Our long-term motivation is to enable small, low-resources laboratories to generate their own libraries of plug-and-play diagnostics to treat their local patient populations independently,” says Anna Young, co-director of MIT’s Little Devices Lab, lecturer at the Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, and one of the lead authors of the paper.
Using this system, called Ampli blocks, the MIT team is working on devices to detect cancer, as well as Zika virus and other infectious diseases. The blocks are inexpensive, costing about 6 cents for four blocks, and they do not require refrigeration or special handling, making them appealing for use in the developing world.
“We see these construction kits as a way of lowering the barriers to making medical technology,” says Jose Gomez-Marquez, co-director of the Little Devices Lab and the senior author of the paper.
Elizabeth Phillips ’13, a graduate student at Purdue University, is also a lead author of the paper, which appears in the journal Advanced Healthcare Materials on May 16. Other authors include Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, an associate professor of engineering at the University of Massachusetts at Boston and a visiting scientist in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering; Nikolas Albarran, a senior engineer in the Little Devices Lab; Jonah Butler, an MIT junior; and Kaira Lujan, a former visiting student in the Little Devices Lab.
Over the past decade, many researchers have been working on small, portable diagnostic devices based on chemical reactions that occur on paper strips. Many of these tests make use of lateral flow technology, which is the same approach used in home pregnancy tests.
Despite these efforts, such tests have not been widely deployed. One obstacle, says Gomez-Marquez, is that many of these devices are not designed with large-scale manufacturability in mind. Another is that companies may not be interested in mass-producing a diagnostic for a disease that doesn’t affect a large number of people.
The Little Devices Lab researchers realized that they could get these diagnostics into the hands of many more people if they created a kit of modular components that can be put together to generate exactly what the user needs. To that end, they have created about 40 different building blocks that lab workers around the world could easily assemble on their own, just as people began assembling their own radios and other electronic devices from commercially available electronic “breadboards” in the 1970s.
“When the electronic breadboard came out, that meant people didn’t have to worry about building their own resistors or capacitors. They could worry about what they actually wanted to use electronics for, which is to make the entire circuit,” Gomez-Marquez says.
|Video: Melanie Gonick, MIT.|
In this case, the components consist of a sheet of paper or glass fiber sandwiched between a plastic or metal block and a glass cover. The blocks, which are about half an inch on each edge, can snap together along any edge. Some of the blocks contain channels for samples to flow straight through, some have turns, and some can receive a sample from a pipette or mix multiple reagents together.
The blocks can also perform different biochemical functions. Many contain antibodies that can detect a specific molecule in a blood or urine sample. Those antibodies are attached to nanoparticles that change color when the target molecule is present, indicating a positive result.
These blocks can be aligned in different ways, allowing the user to create diagnostics based on one reaction or a series of reactions. In one example, the researchers combined blocks that detect three different molecules to create a test for isonicotinic acid, which can reveal whether tuberculosis patients are taking their medication.
The blocks are color-coded by function, making it easier to assemble predesigned devices using instructions that the researchers plan to put online. They also hope that users will develop and contribute their own specifications to the online guide.
The researchers also showed that in some ways, these blocks can outperform previous versions of paper diagnostic devices. For example, they found that they could run a sample back and forth over a test strip multiple times, enhancing the signal. This could make it easier to get reliable results from urine and saliva samples, which are usually more dilute than blood samples, but are easier to obtain from patients.
“These are things that cannot be done with standard lateral flow tests, because those are not modular — you only get to run those once,” says Hamad-Schifferli.
The team is now working on tests for human papilloma virus, malaria, and Lyme disease, among others. They are also working on blocks that can synthesize useful compounds, including drugs, as well as blocks that incorporate electrical components such as LEDs.
The ultimate goal is to get the technology into the hands of small labs in both industrialized and developing countries, so they can create their own diagnostics. The MIT team has already sent them to labs in Chile and Nicaragua, where they have been used to develop devices to monitor patient adherence to TB treatment and to test for a genetic variant that makes malaria more difficult to treat.
Catherine Klapperich, associate dean for research and an associate professor of biomedical engineering at Boston University, says the MIT team’s work will help to make the diagnostic design process more inclusive.
“By reducing the barriers to designing new point-of-care paperfluidics, the work invites nonexperts in and will certainly result in new ideas and collaborations in settings all around the world,” says Klapperich, who was not involved in the research. “The practical demonstrations of the system presented here are poised to be immediately useful, while the possibilities for others to build on the tool are large.”
The researchers are now investigating large-scale manufacturing techniques, and they hope to launch a company to manufacture and distribute the kits around the world.
“We are excited to open the platform to other researchers so they can use the blocks and generate their own reactions,” Young says.
The research was funded by a gift from Autodesk and the U.S. Public Health Service.
– Anne Trafton | MIT News Office
May 16, 2018
Materials Day poster presenters give two-minute introductions to their research during annual symposium.
Materials Day Poster Session presenters capped off the annual Materials Day Symposium with brief highlights of research ranging from solar energy and alternative fuels to spinal cord injury and neural networks for artificial intelligence.
Postdoc Grace Han, in Prof. Jeffrey Grossman’s group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, described progress in creating materials which absorb photons from sunlight and convert them into heat energy through the charging and discharging cycle of organic photo switching molecules. “This is quite different from just heating water or concrete block by solar radiation in that we can actually store the energy and release energy by triggering,” Han said. These organic coatings can be integrated onto car windshields for deicing, fabrics for personal heating, or building materials for temperature control. Han’s poster also described a new process to harness waste heat from industrial furnaces, and store it for later release.
Janille Maragh, a graduate student in Professor Admir Masic’s lab, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, presented her work on sustainable construction materials. To study ancient Roman concrete from an archaeological site in Italy, she used Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to map centimeter scale samples at microscopic resolution. “What we are trying to do is understand exactly what our sample is made of so can we understand this phenomenal material. … So we understand not only the bulk composition of our material but also their fracture surface.”
“Carbon monoxide is responsible for more than half of all fatal poisonings worldwide,” Vera Schroeder, a graduate student in Professor Timothy Swager’s lab, said. “Exposure to this odorless, colorless and tasteless gas is very difficult to detect for humans, which is compounded by the fact that the initial symptoms of poisoning – headache, dizziness, and confusion are non-specific.” Schroeder is developing bio-inspired carbon monoxide sensors that use a transistor-based design to activate a chemical change in iron atoms to detect carbon monoxide, even in air. “This new mode of sensor allows us to have a voltage activated, enhanced and highly specific response and we can detect carbon monoxide in air with much higher sensitivity than we detect CO2, oxygen or water,” she said.
- Repairing spinal cord damage Repairing spinal cord damage
- Making artificial axons Making artificial axons
- Fluid-solid interface on graphene Fluid-solid interface on graphene
- Organic photo switching molecules Organic photo switching molecules
- Examining hydrogen solubility Examining hydrogen solubility
Alfonso Juan Carrillo, a postdoc in the lab of Jennifer L. M. Rupp, the Thomas Lord Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, presented results of work on perovskite materials for solar-driven transformation of CO2 and water into fuels. Carillo selected the best candidate perovskite materials, synthesized these perovskites, analyzed their microstructure, and tested them in a fixed bed high-temperature reactor. “We use what are called thermochemical cycles,” Carillo said. As the perovskite absorbs oxygen, it can transform water and carbon dioxide into hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Minghui Wang, a postdoc in Professor Karen Gleason’s lab, is creating thin-film microporous polymers for gas separation using chemical vapor deposition. Gas separation is important for industrial gas needs and carbon capture but heat-based methods are energy intensive,” he said. “One challenge is that you need to achieve both high flux and high gas selectivity for membrane materials. To do so, usually you need a rigid and microporous structure and also you need to fabricate very thin films, but to do both of them is kind of difficult. In our lab, we use chemical vapor deposition to deposit pinhole-free thin films by using this technique and using porphyrin as a monomer.” He achieved high selectivity for carbon dioxide and nitrogen separation using polymerized porphyrin on a flexible substrate.
Andrew Dane, a graduate student in Professor Karl Berggren’s group, discussed progress on improving speed and efficiency in superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. Two competing available materials tilt toward either speed or efficiency. “We changed the material deposition and made some devices and showed that we kind of combined the best of both worlds,” Dane said. “There is a quantum phase transition in the material that we’re working with and a lot of other interesting things.”
About a million Americans undergo hernia repair surgery each year and for one in four or them, hernia will re-occur. About half will experience some degree of chronic pain, said Sebastian Pattinson, a postdoc in the lab of Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering A. John Hart. The surgical mesh used to mechanically reinforce the tissue as it heals causes many of these complications. Pattinson described a new 3D printing process that allows local customization of mechanical response in a surgical mesh and in particular allows for non-linear mechanical response in a way that mimics tissue. “We hope that these meshes will help alleviate the complications suffered by many patients all around the world,” Pattinson said.
Chemistry postdoc Zhou Lin, in Professor Troy A. Voorhis’ group, presented research on a process to double electric current in organic solar cells by splitting single excitons into pairs, a process that is called singlet fission. “We can generate two electric currents out of one high-energy photon so we can promote the efficiency of organic photovoltaics, that’s what we want,” Lin said. “Based on our electronic structure theory calculations, we are able to reproduce the experimental trend for the fission rate using three different isomers that can undergo this intramolecular singlet fission,” she said.
Yukio Cho, a graduate student in Prof. Harry L. Tuller’s lab, is working on mixed ionic and electronic conductor [MIEC] cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells. Using electrochemical methods, Cho and colleagues synthesized n-type cathode material to improve the surface exchange. “We control the defects, control the electronic defects, and for the current result, we successfully synthesized n-type materials,” Cho said. “The expected good surface exchange capability is also confirmed through transfer diffusion measurements.”
Frank McGrogan, a graduate student in Professor Krystyn J. Van Vliet’s lab, presented his work with the Chemomechanics of Far-From-Equilibrium Interfaces [COFFEI] group on all-solid electrolytes in lithium ion battery systems. “One of the main sticking points is we have this problem of lithium metal unevenly plating the electrodes, crossing the electrolyte and shorting the cell. Our group has been treating this as a fracture issue. … We’ve demonstrated experimentally that fracture is indeed a mechanism for this lithium plating and shorting problem.”
“We’ve gone ahead and measured some mechanical properties including fracture properties of several important solid electrolytes and used these inputs in simulations to predict damage evolution,” McGrogan said. “I think that the way that our group has approached this problem and how we’re getting to the mechanism is going to change the way our field thinks about failure in all solid-state lithium ion batteries.”
Postdoc Dena Shahriari, who works with Professors Yoel Fink and Polina Anikeeva, shared an update on efforts to repair spinal cord damage by optically stimulating and guiding the growth of injured neurons. “We’re using a thermal drawing process, which is a high throughput technique which will allow us to create kilometer-long fibers in just one experiment,” Shahriari said. These highly flexible probes deliver light to the lesion of the spinal cord, and record at multiple sites of these neurons.
“For the tissue engineering part we needed to bridge the nerve gap, we needed to create porosity into these scaffolds, and for that we need to add a twist to this thermal drawing process that will allow us to not only create, but also control, porosity in that,” Shahriari said.
Gerald Wang, a graduate student in mechanical engineering under Prof. Nicolas Hadjiconstantinou, invited attendees to learn more about his poster by arranging it so that the first letters of each line spelled out “C-O-M-E.” He is exploring the fluid-solid interface atop a sheet of graphene. “It turns out when you put fluid in this environment under the right conditions, it will spontaneously arrange into a layered structure that mimics the solid below it. This layered fluid structure, practically indistinguishable from tiramisu or the layered cake of your preference, imparts upon the fluid remarkable fluid properties including enhanced heat transfer, remarkably long slip lengths and highly modified surface diffusivities very different from the bulk fluid.”
“It’s a very exciting story with some of the great actors and actresses of today including Van der Waals, high through-put simulation and molecular self-assembly. So there’s something for everybody whether you’re an experimentalist, a theorist, a computationalist, or you just like a good scaling relation, you should make like the letters and come on by,” Wang said.
Mary Elizabeth Wagner, a graduate student in the group of Associate Professor of Metallurgy Antoine Allanore, is working on a sustainable way to refine precious metals from nature and from recycled materials. “The problem is these expensive elements, silver, gold, platinum, are found in very, very tiny amounts, comparatively to copper, but they make up so much of the cost,” Wagner said.
“My idea in my research focuses on one system that can host electrochemistry for gold, for silver, and for platinum group metals,” Wagner said. Molten sulfide electrolytes are one promising system. “We should be able to treat all of these metals in one go, which should be able to provide an environmentally sustainable as well as a cost-effective way to treat these metals,” she said.
Vrindaa Somjit, a graduate student under Prof. Bilge Yildiz, is examining the effect of dopants on hydrogen solubility in alumina using a computational, first principles approach. Hydrogen may become a fuel of the future, but one of the main problems in making this a reality is the storage and transport of hydrogen. Hydrogen can penetrate steel and cause it to fail.
“One way to mitigate this problem of hydrogen embrittlement is by the use of permeation barrier coatings, and alpha-alumina is a promising candidate,” Somjit said. She set out to determine if dopants, extra chemical elements added to a compound, could improve the performance of alpha-alumina in resisting hydrogen penetration. “What we found is that actually dopants do not help in decreasing the hydrogen solubility because alpha-alumina itself lies at the bottom of the hydrogen solubility valley,” Somjit said.
Graduate student Chang Sub Kim, in Professor Harry Tuller’s group, conducts research to electrochemically pump oxygen in and out of a thin film of layered cuprate, which has potential as a cathode material. “An interesting fact is that it can accommodate both oxygen vacancies as well as interstitials. So in this study, I show you that I can control the region where I can access oxygen-access and also oxygen-deficient regions, and then show that I can simultaneously measure different materials properties such as oxygen surface reaction kinetics as well as in-plane conductivity, which agrees very well with the expected defect chemistry.”
Postdoc Yuming Chen in Professor Ju Li’s group, spoke about a project to develop a sodium-ion battery anode using nitrogen-doped carbon. Chen introduces nitrogen atoms into the structure of hollow carbon tubes to create larger spacing that allows sodium to penetrate the carbon tube and yield higher performance. These carbon tubes can be used as freestanding electrodes with long cycling life.
Ananya Balakrishna, a postdoc in Professor W. Craig Carter’s group, developed theoretical and computational models to investigate the link between material properties and microstructure. “In my research, I probe questions like what determines microstructural patterns, can we engineer microstructures to control macroscopic material properties,” she said. Her poster featured two projects describing microstructure in ferroelectric materials and in lithium battery electrodes.
“In lithium batteries, microstructures form during a typical charge/discharge cycle. In these microstructures, the underlying lattice symmetry has an effect on material properties, for example, certain lattice arrangements facilitate the faster propagation of diffusion of lithium ions and certain lattice arrangements cause non-uniform expansion of electrodes,” Balakrishna said. She is working on a phase field crystal model that couples lattice symmetry with the concentration field to describe electrode microstructure.
Menghsuan Sam Pan, a graduate student in Professor Yet-Ming Chiang’s group, focuses on using water-based sulfur batteries for low-cost energy storage. “It’s one of the lowest cost per stored charge in any electrochemically active materials, only behind water and oxygen,” Pan said. “When we work in soluble electrodes, we found that the sulfur can only be reversibly cycled between a di-sulfide and a tetra-sulfide regime, and with this we did some technical economic modeling to see the installed costs of the electrode. What surprised us is that the component that’s used to hold the electrode is more costly than the active material itself.”
Experiments showed these sulfide species cycle reversibly, precipitating into the electrode and then dissolving very well when they are cycled back, Pan said. “We cycled for more than 1,600 hours, more than two months,” he said, noting a 30 percent cost reduction in terms of cost per stored capacity.
Working under Professor Jeehwan Kim, graduate student Scott Tan is developing hardware for neural networks for artificial intelligence. He makes silicon-germanium cross-bar arrays with a reversible silver conductance channel to toggle the conductance state of these synaptic devices. “We’ve also used these devices in a simulation and showed that they can perform handwriting recognition with accuracy up to 95 percent,” Tan said.
Mechanical engineering graduate student Nicholas T. Dee presented work in Professor A. John Hart’s group on scalable roll-to-roll graphene production for membrane applications. “We’ve developed a roll-to-roll CVD reactor for this process that is unique in that it has two different zones, one specifically for annealing the substrate and catalyst and one zone for growth of the graphene,” Dee said. The researchers tuned the gas composition to achieve full coverage of monolayer graphene and explored the tradeoff between production rate and quality of the graphene. “We have demonstrated using our graphene produced in this high-throughput manner to produce nano-porous, atomically thin membranes for potential desalination applications,” he said.
Brad R. Nakanishi, a graduate student in Professor Antoine Allanore’s group, introduced his research on high-temperature materials chemistry in refractory metals. “What we’ve done, where experiment by conventional methods or prediction by first principles prove very complex and challenging, we’ve basically modified a floating zone furnace which has provided us with enhanced experimental throughput and also very unique ability to see and probe the properties of these refractory liquids,” Nakanishi said. His poster showed an image of the first direct electrolytic decomposition of aluminum oxide to oxygen gas and aluminum metal. “We’ve been using this approach to make fundamental thermodynamic property measurements like chemical potential,” he said. This work has implications for discovery of new materials for applications from aerospace to nuclear as well as discovery of new processes for materials extraction.
Chosen by guests who attended the Materials Day Poster Session, this year's Poster Session prize winners were Postdoc Dena Shahriari, electrical engineering and computer science; graduate student Vera Schroeder, chemistry; and Postdoc Sebastian Pattinson, mechanical engineering.
The annual MIT Materials Research Laboratory [MRL] Materials Day Symposium and Poster Session were held on Wednesday, Oct. 11, 2017.
Related: A magical dimension
Materials Day is scheduled for October 9, 2019
Poster Setup will be in the Student Center - La Sala de Puerto Rico
REGISTRATION IS NOW CLOSED, however if you'd still like to present a poster, please feel free to show up with your poster and you will be assigned a poster board.
Please include the MRL logo on the top left side of your poster. Download the MRL logo.
Posters may be set up between 12:00 pm and 3:00 pm the day of the event. Individuals are expected to be with and remain with their poster during the Poster Session, from 4:00-6:00pm.
Injectable material made of nanoscale particles can deliver arthritis drugs throughout cartilage.
Anne Trafton | MIT News Office
November 28, 2018
Osteoarthritis, a disease that causes severe joint pain, affects more than 20 million people in the United States. Some drug treatments can help alleviate the pain, but there are no treatments that can reverse or slow the cartilage breakdown associated with the disease.
In an advance that could improve the treatment options available for osteoarthritis, MIT engineers have designed a new material that can administer drugs directly to the cartilage. The material can penetrate deep into the cartilage, delivering drugs that could potentially heal damaged tissue.
“This is a way to get directly to the cells that are experiencing the damage, and introduce different kinds of therapeutics that might change their behavior,” says Paula Hammond, head of MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering, a member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, and the senior author of the study.
In a study in rats, the researchers showed that delivering an experimental drug called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with this new material prevented cartilage breakdown much more effectively than injecting the drug into the joint on its own.
Brett Geiger, an MIT graduate student, is the lead author of the paper, which appears in the Nov. 28 issue of Science Translational Medicine. Other authors are Sheryl Wang, an MIT graduate student, Robert Padera, an associate professor of pathology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Alan Grodzinsky, an MIT professor of biological engineering.
Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease that can be caused by a traumatic injury such as tearing a ligament; it can also result from gradual wearing down of cartilage as people age. A smooth connective tissue that protects the joints, cartilage is produced by cells called chondrocytes but is not easily replaced once it is damaged.
Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 can help regenerate cartilage in animals. However, many osteoarthritis drugs that showed promise in animal studies have not performed well in clinical trials.
The MIT team suspected that this was because the drugs were cleared from the joint before they could reach the deep layer of chondrocytes that they were intended to target. To overcome that, they set out to design a material that could penetrate all the way through the cartilage.
The sphere-shaped molecule they came up with contains many branched structures called dendrimers that branch from a central core. The molecule has a positive charge at the tip of each of its branches, which helps it bind to the negatively charged cartilage. Some of those charges can be replaced with a short flexible, water-loving polymer, known as PEG, that can swing around on the surface and partially cover the positive charge. Molecules of IGF-1 are also attached to the surface.
When these particles are injected into a joint, they coat the surface of the cartilage and then begin diffusing through it. This is easier for them to do than it is for free IGF-1 because the spheres’ positive charges allow them to bind to cartilage and prevent them from being washed away. The charged molecules do not adhere permanently, however. Thanks to the flexible PEG chains on the surface that cover and uncover charge as they move, the molecules can briefly detach from cartilage, enabling them to move deeper into the tissue.
“We found an optimal charge range so that the material can both bind the tissue and unbind for further diffusion, and not be so strong that it just gets stuck at the surface,” Geiger says.
Once the particles reach the chondrocytes, the IGF-1 molecules bind to receptors on the cell surfaces and stimulate the cells to start producing proteoglycans, the building blocks of cartilage and other connective tissues. The IGF-1 also promotes cell growth and prevents cell death.
When the researchers injected the particles into the knee joints of rats, they found that the material had a half-life of about four days, which is 10 times longer than IGF-1 injected on its own. The drug concentration in the joints remained high enough to have a therapeutic effect for about 30 days. If this holds true for humans, patients could benefit greatly from joint injections — which can only be given monthly or biweekly — the researchers say.
In the animal studies, the researchers found that cartilage in injured joints treated with the nanoparticle-drug combination was far less damaged than cartilage in untreated joints or joints treated with IGF-1 alone. The joints also showed reductions in joint inflammation and bone spur formation.
“This is an important proof-of-concept that builds on the recent advances in the identification of anabolic growth factors with clinical promise (such as IGF-1), with promising disease-modifying results in a clinically relevant model. Delivery of growth factors using nanoparticles in a manner that sustains and improves treatments for osteoarthritis is a significant step for nanomedicines,” says Kannan Rangaramanujam, a professor of ophthalmology and co-director of the Center for Nanomedicine at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, who was not involved in the research.
Cartilage in rat joints is about 100 microns thick, but the researchers also showed that their particles could penetrate chunks of cartilage up to 1 millimeter — the thickness of cartilage in a human joint.
“That is a very hard thing to do. Drugs typically will get cleared before they are able to move through much of the cartilage,” Geiger says. “When you start to think about translating this technology from studies in rats to larger animals and someday humans, the ability of this technology to succeed depends on its ability to work in thicker cartilage.”
The researchers began developing this material as a way to treat osteoarthritis that arises after traumatic injury, but they believe it could also be adapted to treat age-related osteoarthritis. They now plan to explore the possibility of delivering different types of drugs, such as other growth factors, drugs that block inflammatory cytokines, and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
The research was funded by the Department of Defense Congressionally Funded Medical Research Program and a National Science Foundation fellowship.
Read more from MIT News.
Powered only by solar energy, a new device developed at MIT could provide relief to regions where water is scare.
With droughts plaguing much of the western United States and millions of people across the globe living without access to safe water, the need for technologies that produce clean water is greater than ever. The key, according to Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Professor and department head for MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, is in the very air we breathe.
|Video by: John Freidah|
"Water vapor is all around us in the air, even in arid conditions,” explains Wang. She and her team in MIT’s Device Research Laboratory have developed a device that can tap into this abundant resource and literally pull water out of thin air.
The key to the process is a powder that desiccates the air, attracting vapor directly to the porous matrix at the base of the device’s main chamber like a sponge. The vapor is then condensed into liquid and can be collected as usable water – even in dry atmospheres with as low as 20 percent humidity.
The entire process of converting the water vapor found in air into potable water can be done using only the power of the sun. “The device is completely passive,” says Wang. “There is no need to use outside power supplies which can help keep the device low-cost and efficient.”
Keeping costs low and efficiency high is one of Wang’s central goals. “We hope to develop a device that provides relief to the millions of people living in communities that lack the infrastructure needed to provide access to clean drinking water or those living in regions plagued by drought,” adds Wang.
During a field test in Tempe, Arizona, earlier this year, a small proof-of-concept prototype of the device extracted a quarter-liter of water per day per kilogram of the absorbent powder. The researchers hope to increase this output by further tailoring the powder and optimizing the device.
– Mary Beth O'Leary, Department of Mechanical Engineering
MIT News Office, July 23, 2018
The new method could impact devices used in imaging, machine learning, and more.
|This 8-inch wafer contains phase-change pixels that can be controlled to modulate light. Researchers are studying the properties and behaviors of the pixels to inform the creation of future devices that use phase-change materials. Image, Nicole Fandel|
In the 1950s, the field of electronics began to change when the transistor replaced vacuum tubes in computers. The change, which entailed replacing large and slow components with small and fast ones, was a catalyst for the enduring trend of miniaturization in computer design. No such revolution has yet hit the field of infrared optics, which remains reliant on bulky moving parts that preclude building small systems.
However, a team of researchers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, together with Professor Juejun Hu and graduate students from MIT's Department of Materials Science and Engineering, is devising a way to control infrared light by using phase-change materials instead of moving parts. These materials have the ability to change their optical properties when energy is added to them.
“There are multiple possible ways where this material can enable new photonic devices that impact people’s lives,” says Hu. “For example, it can be useful for energy-efficient optical switches, which can improve network speed and reduce power consumption of internet data centers. It can enable reconfigurable meta-optical devices, such as compact, flat infrared zoom lenses without mechanical moving parts. It can also lead to new computing systems, which can make machine learning faster and more power-efficient compared to current solutions.”
A fundamental property of phase-change materials is that they can change how fast light travels through them (the refractive index). “There are already ways to modulate light using a refractive index change, but phase-change materials can change almost 1,000 times better,” says Jeffrey Chou, a team member formerly in the laboratory's Advanced Materials and Microsystems Group.
The team successfully controlled infrared light in multiple systems by using a new class of phase-change material containing the elements germanium, antimony, selenium, and tellurium, collectively known as GSST. This work is discussed in a paper published in Nature Communications.
A phase-change material's magic occurs in the chemical bonds that tie its atoms together. In one phase state, the material is crystalline, with its atoms arranged in an organized pattern. This state can be changed by applying a short, high-temperature spike of thermal energy to the material, causing the bonds in the crystal to break down and then reform in a more random, or amorphous, pattern. To change the material back to the crystalline state, a long- and medium-temperature pulse of thermal energy is applied.
“This changing of the chemical bonds allows for different optical properties to emerge, similar to the differences between coal (amorphous) and diamond (crystalline),” says Christopher Roberts, another Lincoln Laboratory member of the research team. “While both materials are mostly carbon, they have vastly different optical properties.”
Currently, phase-change materials are used for industry applications, such as Blu-ray technology and rewritable DVDs, because their properties are useful for storing and erasing a large amount of information. But so far, no one has used them in infrared optics because they tend to be transparent in one state and opaque in the other. (Think of the diamond, which light can pass through, and coal, which light cannot penetrate.) If light cannot pass through one of the states, then that light cannot be adequately controlled for a range of uses; instead, a system would only be able to work like an on/off switch, allowing light to either pass through the material or not pass through at all.
However, the research team found that that by adding the element selenium to the original material (called GST), the material's absorption of infrared light in the crystalline phase decreased dramatically — in essence, changing it from an opaque coal-like material to a more transparent diamond-like one. What's more, the large difference in the refractive index of the two states affects the propagation of light through them.
“This change in refractive index, without introducing optical loss, allows for the design of devices that control infrared light without the need for mechanical parts,” Roberts says.
As an example, imagine a laser beam that is pointing in one direction and needs to be changed to another. In current systems, a large mechanical gimbal would physically move a lens to steer the beam to another position. A thin-film lens made of GSST would be able change positions by electrically reprogramming the phase-change materials, enabling beam steering with no moving parts.
The team has already tested the material successfully in a moving lens. They have also demonstrated its use in infrared hyperspectral imaging, which is used to analyze images for hidden objects or information, and in a fast optical shutter that was able to close in nanoseconds.
The potential uses for GSST are vast, and an ultimate goal for the team is to design reconfigurable optical chips, lenses, and filters, which currently must be rebuilt from scratch each time a change is required. Once the team is ready to move the material beyond the research phase, it should be fairly easy to transition it into the commercial space. Because it's already compatible with standard microelectronic fabrication processes, GSST components could be made at a low cost and in large numbers.
Recently, the laboratory obtained a combinatorial sputtering chamber — a state-of-the-art machine that allows researchers to create custom materials out of individual elements. The team will use this chamber to further optimize the materials for improved reliability and switching speeds, as well as for low-power applications. They also plan to experiment with other materials that may prove useful in controlling visible light.
The next steps for the team are to look closely into real-world applications of GSST and understand what those systems need in terms of power, size, switching speed, and optical contrast.
“The impact [of this research] is twofold,” Hu says. "Phase-change materials offer a dramatically enhanced refractive index change compared to other physical effects — induced by electric field or temperature change, for instance — thereby enabling extremely compact reprogrammable optical devices and circuits. Our demonstration of bistate optical transparency in these materials is also significant in that we can now create high-performance infrared components with minimal optical loss.” The new material, Hu continues, is expected to open up an entirely new design space in the field of infrared optics.
– Anne McGovern | Lincoln Laboratory
MIT News Office, January 30, 2020
Scheme would make new high-capacity data caches 33 to 50 percent more efficient.
In a traditional computer, a microprocessor is mounted on a “package,” a small circuit board with a grid of electrical leads on its bottom. The package snaps into the computer’s motherboard, and data travels between the processor and the computer’s main memory bank through the leads.
As processors’ transistor counts have gone up, the relatively slow connection between the processor and main memory has become the chief impediment to improving computers’ performance. So, in the past few years, chip manufacturers have started putting dynamic random-access memory — or DRAM, the type of memory traditionally used for main memory — right on the chip package.
The natural way to use that memory is as a high-capacity cache, a fast, local store of frequently used data. But DRAM is fundamentally different from the type of memory typically used for on-chip caches, and existing cache-management schemes don’t use it efficiently.
At the recent IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture, researchers from MIT, Intel, and ETH Zurich presented a new cache-management scheme that improves the data rate of in-package DRAM caches by 33 to 50 percent.
Read more at the MIT News Office.
Larry Hardesty | MIT News Office
October 22, 2017
Ten Summer Scholars, through the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate program, five local community college students and three middle and high school teachers worked in faculty labs this summer on a variety of scientific research projects through the MIT Materials Research Laboratory and its Materials Research Science and Engineering Center.
- Magnetic material Magnetic material
- Separating a template Separating a template
- Understanding mucus Understanding mucus
- Building optical couplers Building optical couplers
- Microfluidic device Microfluidic device
- Tape casting set up Tape casting set up
- Growing carbon nanotubes Growing carbon nanotubes
- Targeting drug delivery Targeting drug delivery
- Spin coating a glass slide Spin coating a glass slide
- Close inspection Close inspection
- Nanocomposite tectons Nanocomposite tectons
- Modeling spider webs Modeling spider webs
- Microscopic examination Microscopic examination
- Artificial muscle fibers Artificial muscle fibers
- Studying flow batteries Studying flow batteries
- Testing silicon membranes Testing silicon membranes
- From lab to classroom From lab to classroom
- Teaching high school science Teaching high school science
- Making alum crystals Making alum crystals